Acidovorax citrulli ZJU (b-proteobacteria) genome assembly Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli from Institute of Biotechnology [GCA_ Bacterial fruit blotch is caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli. The disease was first detected in Florida in and was subsequently detected in South. Acidovorax citrulli is the causal agent of bacterial fruit blotch and seedling blight Synomyms: Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli, Pseudomonas.

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These infected wild cucurbits and volunteer crop cucurbits may be important overseasoning hosts for the bacterium that helps to perpetuate the disease in an area Latin and Hopkins, Plant Disease, 86 4: The data indicate that watermelon blossoms are a abenae site of ingress for fruit and seed infestation by A. Host-Plant Resistance Fruit of some cultivars are more susceptible to bacterial fruit blotch than others.

Impact Top of page In the spring of in the USA, bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon first occurred in commercial watermelon fields in Acidovoarx and, as the season progressed, the disease was observed in South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland, Delaware, and Indiana Somodi et al.

However, the infection level generally has been low, because in heavily infected seed lots the bacterium would have been detected and seed would not have been sold. Bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon has continued to be a threat to the watermelon industry in the USA.

In addition to wind-driven rain, the bacterium can be spread by contact with farm workers, irrigation, and subsp.citrullli cultivation equipment D. Nomura T; Shirakawa T, Thus, the bacterium must invade the fruit seven days, or more, before maturity, but the symptoms continue to develop as long as the fruit is attached to the plant. The disease cycle in most host crops apparently begins with contaminated seed Latin and Hopkins, Copper-containing fungicides reduce the spread of bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon in the greenhouse.


Watermelon fruits are most vulnerable to bacterial infection 2 to 3 weeks after anthesis Frankle et al.

In young seedlings, lesions can develop in the hypocotyl resulting in collapse and death of the emerging plant. Control of watermelon fruit blotch by seed heat treatment. Overhead irrigation of seedlings resulted in greater levels of pathogen spread.

Acidovorax citrulli (PSDMAC)[Overview]| EPPO Global Database

Bacterial leaf spot of Christ’s thorn, a new disease caused by Acidovomx avenae subsp. The American Phytopathological Society, St.

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Detection and Inspection Top of page Inspect young cucurbit seedlings for the typical water-soaked areas on the underside of cotyledons and the restricted lesions that turn dark brown and often extend along the length of the subsp.citrulki midrib Webb and Goth, However, there may be other endemic sources of inoculum like debris from infected fruit or foliage tissue, volunteer watermelon seedlings, or cucurbitaceous weeds Black et al.

Manejo integrado de una emergencia. Queensland Department of Primary Industries.

Plant Disease, 80 5: However, fermentation cannot be used for certain watermelon hybrids and other cucurbits as it can adversely affect seed germination Walcott, In November subsp.citrluli, betelvines Piper betle L. Journal of Phytopathology, 2: Volunteer watermelon seedlings from previous crops should be destroyed immediately to eliminate potential sources of the fruit blotch bacterium.

There have been many other attempts to develop seed treatments for BFB. Small, water-soaked lesions develop days later. In the field, symptom development and spread of A.


Plant Disease, 84 4: Do not work in an infested field if the foliage is wet.

Sowell and Schaad reported that soaking seed known to be infested with A. In a avehae days, the lesions may expand to cover the entire upper surface of the fruitleaving only the groundspot symptomless. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Watermelon, cantaloupe and honeydew melons appear the avemae susceptible, with both foliar symptoms and blotch symptoms on the fruit Isakeit et al. Plant Disease, 74 1: International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 42 1: Plant Disease, 75 PCR can be used to diagnose A.

Bacterial fruit blotch caused by Acidovorax avenae subsp.

The most susceptible fruit are those with a light green rind, more tolerant are those with light and dark-green stripes and most tolerant are vaenae with a solid dark-green rind Hopkins et al. Mancha-aquosa da melancia em Roraima.

EPPO Global Database

Description Top of page A. The threshold of A. Munoz M; Monterroso D, Watermelon fruit blotch infection rates in diploids and triploids. Irrigation with an overhead boom may result in splash dispersal of the bacteria throughout the greenhouse. The bacterium was phenotypically similar to Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes but differed in that it was pathogenic to watermelon, cantaloupe, cucumber and squash Schaad et al. Alternatively, young watermelon seedlings can be inoculated by dipping a sterile toothpick into the bacterial colony and puncturing the watermelon hypocotyl with the toothpick.